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SCHEDULE C

(ss. 14, 33 and 35)

Soil carbon calculation method

DIVISION I

SOIL SAMPLING STEPS AND VARIABLES OBTAINED

Soil sampling step | Variable obtained during sampling |

Locate on the ground, using a metal peg, each soil sampling point on sample plot (n = 2, see diagram in Schedule A). | Physical location and geolocation by satellite |

Take volumetric samples at 3 depths (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm) for each of the 2 sampling points. | Vt |

For each sample taken, measure the depth reached by the probe. | Eh |

Assess the overall percentage of soil stoniness, in other words the percentage of the soil comprising stones with a diameter greater than that of the probe. This value should not change from one sample to another. | fm’ |

Determine the colour of each soil sample taken using a Munsell soil colour chart. | CodeMunsell |

DIVISION II

LABORATORY ANALYSIS STEPS AND VARIABLES OBTAINED

(1) The laboratory report must show that the steps in the table below have been completed and described the calibration process for the apparatus used to measure carbon in the soil samples.

Laboratory step | Variable obtained |

Note the mass of the initial sample | Mi |

Dry the soil samples at room temperature (≈ 21 °C, ≈ 48-72 h). | --- |

For samples analyzed using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), dry the soil samples at ≈ 37 °C, ≈ 12 h. | |

Determine the total mass of the dry sample (g). | Mt |

Separate fine soil particles (diam < 2 mm) from coarse soil particles (diam > 2 mm) in each sample by sieving. Crush clay soils to 2.5 mm. | --- |

For samples analyzed using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), crush and sieve the soil samples to 2 mm. | |

Determine the mass of the fine soil sample (g). | Mf |

Determine the moisture content of the dry sample (on the basis of the anhydrous mass of the soil at 105° C). | % H |

Determine the mass density of the sample knowing the % H, Mt and the value of the input variables in equation 27 (below) | Db |

For samples analyzed using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), place ≈ 40 g of soil in a cup and compress to 1500 psi. | --- |

Determine the percentage of organic matter using the loss-on-ignition method for the sample (%) at 375° C or using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). | Fo |

Crush a fraction of the sample to <150 μm (100 Mesh). (necessary for the C dose of a LECO-brand device) | --- |

This step is not required if the samples are analyzed using a LaserAg-brand device. | |

Determine the organic carbon concentration of the sample by ignition (using, for example, a LECO brand device [%; g/kg or mg/kg or ppm; on the basis of the anhydrous mass of the soil at 105° C]) or by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) [%]. | Ch |

DIVISION III

CALCULATION OF SOIL CARBON

(1) Soil carbon is calculated using equation 19:

Where:

Q = Sum of the content of an element in each soil horizon to the selected depth, by hectare (metric tonnes/ha);

k = Scale factor (k = 0.1 if “C” is expressed in g/kg or k = 0.0001 if “C” is expressed in mg/kg or ppm);

h = Number of horizons (3 for samples taken at 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm depth);

Teh = Effective thickness of fine soil (soil without stones or coarse fragments) in horizon h (cm), calculated using equation 20;

Dbh = Apparent density of horizon h (g/cm3), calculated using equation 22 or, in other cases, using equation 23;

Ch = Concentration of carbon in fine soil (g/kg or mg/kg or ppm) of sample h.

Equation 20

Eeh = Eh × (1 – fm) × (1 – f’ m)

Where:

Eeh = Effective thickness of fine soil in the sample (cm);

Eh = Measured thickness of the sample (here, the measured thickness of the soil sample (~10 cm));

f’m = Fraction of the soil composed of stones, assessed in the field (stoniness; 0.00);

fm = Average fraction by volume of coarse fragments in the volumetric sample (0.00), calculated using equation 21.

Equation 21

fm = | (Mt – Mf) |

Pm × Vt |

Where:

fm = Average fraction by volume of coarse fragments in the volumetric sample (0.00);

Mt = Total dry mass of the volumetric sample (g);

Mf = Dry mass of fine soil (g);

ρm = Density of coarse fragments (presumed to be equal to 2.65 g/cm3 for stones);

Vt = Total volume of the sample (depending on the probe used, cm3).

Equation 22

Db = | [(100 – %H) × Mf] |

100 × [Vt × (1 – fm)] |

Where:

Db= Apparent observed density of individual samples taken using a volumetric probe g/cm3);

%H = Moisture content of the air-dried sample (%);

Mf = Dry mass of fine soil (g);

Vt = Total volume of the sample (depending on the probe used, cm3);

fm = Average fraction by volume of coarse fragments in the volumetric sample (0.00), calculated using equation 21.

Equation 23

Db = | Dbm × Dbo |

Fo × Dbm + (1 – Fo) × Dbo |

Where:

Db = Apparent calculated density of individual samples taken using a Dutch auger g/cm3);

Dbm = Constant: apparent density of mineral soil without organic matter (g/cm3);

Dbo = Constant: apparent density of organic matter without mineral content (g/cm3);

Fo = Proportion of organic matter observed in individual samples after analysis of the organic matter (0.00);

The values Dbm et Dbo may be estimated using all the Db and Fo data for soils from the same plantation and equation 23. The values of the constants Dbm and Dbo in equation 23 may be calculated using statistical software.

DIVISION IV

CORRECTION OF CARBON STOCK IN SOIL

(1) The carbon stock in the soil must be corrected using equation 24 to establish any change during a reporting period.

The average mineral soil mass (M) obtained during the first sampling campaign must be used during subsequent sampling campaigns as a reference to calculate the average variation in carbon stock and the 90% confidence interval for soil carbon stock.

Equation 24

Qcorrected = Q + k (Ta × Db × CIII)

Where:

Q = Sum of the content of an element in each soil horizon to the selected depth, by hectare (metric tonnes/ha), calculated using equation 19;

k = Scale factor (k = 0.1 if “C” is expressed in g/kg or k = 0.0001 if “C” is expressed in mg/kg or ppm);

Ta = Additional thickness (or, if negative, surplus thickness) of the last sample at the base of the soil profile to be added to the carbon stock (cm), calculated using equation 25;

Db = Apparent observed or calculated density of individual samples (here, the sample is extracted at a depth of 20-30 cm) (g/cm3);

CIII = Concentration of the element in fine soil from the last sample at the base of the soil profile sampled (here, the sample is extracted at a depth of 20-30 cm) (g/kg or mg/kg or ppm).

Equation 25

Ta = | (M0 – Mt) × 0.01 |

DbIII |

Where:

Ta = Additional thickness (or, if negative, surplus thickness) from the last sample at the base of the soil profile sampled to be added to the carbon stock (cm);

DbIII = Apparent density, measured (equation 22) or calculated (equation 23), of the last sample (~20-30 cm) at the base of the soil profile sampled (g/cm3);

M0 = Total mass of reference mineral soil at time t = 0 (metric tonnes/ha);

Mt = Total mass of mineral soil from sample point at time t = 20 years or more (metric tonnes/ha).

Where:

M = Mass of mineral soil to the depth (Eeh) selected (metric tonnes/ha);

Dbm = Apparent density of mineral soil without organic matter (g/cm3);

Eeh = Effective thickness of fine soil in the sample (cm), calculated using equation 20;

h = number of horizons (3 for samples taken at depths of 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm).

SCHEDULE C

(ss. 14, 33 and 35)

Soil carbon calculation method

DIVISION I

SOIL SAMPLING STEPS AND VARIABLES OBTAINED

Soil sampling step | Variable obtained during sampling |

Locate on the ground, using a metal peg, each soil sampling point on sample plot (n = 2, see diagram in Schedule A). | Physical location and geolocation by satellite |

Take volumetric samples at 3 depths (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm) for each of the 2 sampling points. | Vt |

For each sample taken, measure the depth reached by the probe. | Eh |

Assess the overall percentage of soil stoniness, in other words the percentage of the soil comprising stones with a diameter greater than that of the probe. This value should not change from one sample to another. | fm’ |

Determine the colour of each soil sample taken using a Munsell soil colour chart. | CodeMunsell |

DIVISION II

LABORATORY ANALYSIS STEPS AND VARIABLES OBTAINED

(1) The laboratory report must show that the steps in the table below have been completed and described the calibration process for the apparatus used to measure carbon in the soil samples.

Laboratory step | Variable obtained |

Note the mass of the initial sample | Mi |

Dry the soil samples at room temperature (≈ 21 °C, ≈ 48-72 h). | --- |

For samples analyzed using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), dry the soil samples at ≈ 37 °C, ≈ 12 h. | |

Determine the total mass of the dry sample (g). | Mt |

Separate fine soil particles (diam < 2 mm) from coarse soil particles (diam > 2 mm) in each sample by sieving. Crush clay soils to 2.5 mm. | --- |

For samples analyzed using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), crush and sieve the soil samples to 2 mm. | |

Determine the mass of the fine soil sample (g). | Mf |

Determine the moisture content of the dry sample (on the basis of the anhydrous mass of the soil at 105° C). | % H |

Determine the mass density of the sample knowing the % H, Mt and the value of the input variables in equation 27 (below) | Db |

For samples analyzed using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), place ≈ 40 g of soil in a cup and compress to 1500 psi. | --- |

Determine the percentage of organic matter using the loss-on-ignition method for the sample (%) at 375° C or using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). | Fo |

Crush a fraction of the sample to <150 μm (100 Mesh). (necessary for the C dose of a LECO-brand device) | --- |

This step is not required if the samples are analyzed using a LaserAg-brand device. | |

Determine the organic carbon concentration of the sample by ignition (using, for example, a LECO brand device [%; g/kg or mg/kg or ppm; on the basis of the anhydrous mass of the soil at 105° C]) or by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) [%]. | Ch |

DIVISION III

CALCULATION OF SOIL CARBON

(1) Soil carbon is calculated using equation 19:

Where:

Q = Sum of the content of an element in each soil horizon to the selected depth, by hectare (metric tonnes/ha);

k = Scale factor (k = 0.1 if “C” is expressed in g/kg or k = 0.0001 if “C” is expressed in mg/kg or ppm);

h = Number of horizons (3 for samples taken at 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm depth);

Teh = Effective thickness of fine soil (soil without stones or coarse fragments) in horizon h (cm), calculated using equation 20;

Dbh = Apparent density of horizon h (g/cm3), calculated using equation 22 or, in other cases, using equation 23;

Ch = Concentration of carbon in fine soil (g/kg or mg/kg or ppm) of sample h.

Equation 20

Eeh = Eh × (1 – fm) × (1 – f’ m)

Where:

Eeh = Effective thickness of fine soil in the sample (cm);

Eh = Measured thickness of the sample (here, the measured thickness of the soil sample (~10 cm));

f’m = Fraction of the soil composed of stones, assessed in the field (stoniness; 0.00);

fm = Average fraction by volume of coarse fragments in the volumetric sample (0.00), calculated using equation 21.

Equation 21

fm = | (Mt – Mf) |

Pm × Vt |

Where:

fm = Average fraction by volume of coarse fragments in the volumetric sample (0.00);

Mt = Total dry mass of the volumetric sample (g);

Mf = Dry mass of fine soil (g);

ρm = Density of coarse fragments (presumed to be equal to 2.65 g/cm3 for stones);

Vt = Total volume of the sample (depending on the probe used, cm3).

Equation 22

Db = | [(100 – %H) × Mf] |

100 × [Vt × (1 – fm)] |

Where:

Db= Apparent observed density of individual samples taken using a volumetric probe g/cm3);

%H = Moisture content of the air-dried sample (%);

Mf = Dry mass of fine soil (g);

Vt = Total volume of the sample (depending on the probe used, cm3);

Equation 23

Db = | Dbm × Dbo |

Fo × Dbm + (1 – Fo) × Dbo |

Where:

Db = Apparent calculated density of individual samples taken using a Dutch auger g/cm3);

Dbm = Constant: apparent density of mineral soil without organic matter (g/cm3);

Dbo = Constant: apparent density of organic matter without mineral content (g/cm3);

Fo = Proportion of organic matter observed in individual samples after analysis of the organic matter (0.00);

The values Dbm et Dbo may be estimated using all the Db and Fo data for soils from the same plantation and equation 23. The values of the constants Dbm and Dbo in equation 23 may be calculated using statistical software.

DIVISION IV

CORRECTION OF CARBON STOCK IN SOIL

(1) The carbon stock in the soil must be corrected using equation 24 to establish any change during a reporting period.

The average mineral soil mass (M) obtained during the first sampling campaign must be used during subsequent sampling campaigns as a reference to calculate the average variation in carbon stock and the 90% confidence interval for soil carbon stock.

Equation 24

Qcorrected = Q + k (Ta × Db × CIII)

Where:

Q = Sum of the content of an element in each soil horizon to the selected depth, by hectare (metric tonnes/ha), calculated using equation 19;

Ta = Additional thickness (or, if negative, surplus thickness) of the last sample at the base of the soil profile to be added to the carbon stock (cm), calculated using equation 25;

Db = Apparent observed or calculated density of individual samples (here, the sample is extracted at a depth of 20-30 cm) (g/cm3);

CIII = Concentration of the element in fine soil from the last sample at the base of the soil profile sampled (here, the sample is extracted at a depth of 20-30 cm) (g/kg or mg/kg or ppm).

Equation 25

Ta = | (M0 – Mt) × 0.01 |

DbIII |

Where:

Ta = Additional thickness (or, if negative, surplus thickness) from the last sample at the base of the soil profile sampled to be added to the carbon stock (cm);

DbIII = Apparent density, measured (equation 22) or calculated (equation 23), of the last sample (~20-30 cm) at the base of the soil profile sampled (g/cm3);

M0 = Total mass of reference mineral soil at time t = 0 (metric tonnes/ha);

Mt = Total mass of mineral soil from sample point at time t = 20 years or more (metric tonnes/ha).

Where:

M = Mass of mineral soil to the depth (Eeh) selected (metric tonnes/ha);

Dbm = Apparent density of mineral soil without organic matter (g/cm3);

Eeh = Effective thickness of fine soil in the sample (cm), calculated using equation 20;

h = number of horizons (3 for samples taken at depths of 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm).